Main Article Content
The embankments act as a life line for deltaic people of the Sundarbans. The reclamation of immature land through the construction of embankment without proper planning has been increasing the vulnerability of embankment breaching due to various natural and anthropogenic causes. The construction and maintenance of embankments are difficult tasks without prior knowledge about the mode of vulnerability and ground situations of the sites. To understand the scenario of embankment breaching and its recent management strategy, an intensive field survey was conducted to comprehend the underlying reasons for embankment breaching and its management techniques at the ground level. The modern techniques were also incorporated to identify the vulnerable sites of river bank erosion. The study reveals that the southern part of the delta is more vulnerable due to intensive river bank erosion. To understand potential capabilities of these embankments to combat against fluvio-hydrological challenges, a sequential change of embankment construction from historical past to present and recent scientific engineering model of Aila Dam has been chalked out in this study. The present study is an attempt to understand the geo-historical perspectives of embankment construction and to identify the vulnerable coastal zone of Gosaba Island of Sundarban. The study also aims to illustrate the modern techniques of embankment management for its longevity in such a dynamic land.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
Bagchi, K. (1944). The Ganges Delta. University of Calcutta, 12-57.
Banerjee, A. (1998). Environment, Population and Human Settlement of Sundarban Delta. Concept Publishing Company, 27-32. ISBN: 81-7022-739-9 Retrieved on 02 April 2019 from, https://books.google.co.in/books?id=zf_xv9LRd4cC&pg=PA3&source=gbs_selected_pages&cad=3#v=onepage&q&f=false
Census of India, (2011). Provisional Population Totals. Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India, Ministry of Home Affairs, New Delhi, India. Retrieved on 15 March 2019 from, https://censusindia.gov.in/2011census/dchb/DCHB_A/19/1917_PART_A_DCHB_SOUTH%20TWENTY%20FOUR%20PARGANAS.pdf
Das, T. K., & Maity, R. (2008). Land Reclaim and Embankment Breaching- A Case Study along the Raimangal, Sundarban. Changing Scenario of Deltaic Environment, Vidyasagar University, 84-88.
Das, T.K., Majee, A., & Maity, R. (2010). Stress on Embankment As Negative Feedback in the System of Reclaimed Sundarban-A Case Study along the Raimangal. Indian Science Cruiser, 24(1), 24-27.
Das, M., Das, T.K., & Maity, A. (2012). Managing Embankment Breaching in North-East Sundarban. acb Publications, Kolkata, 8-17. ISBN: 81-87500-59-X
Das, K., & Das, K. (2015). Embankment Breaching and its Management in Gosaba and Basanti Blocks of Sundarbans,West Bengal. Indian Journal of Spatial Sciences, 6(1), 49-55.
Das, K. (2016). Sundarban Embankments-A Study along Suryaberia River, Sambhunagar Island, Gosaba, West Bengal. International Journal of Current Research, 8(5), 32187-32195.
Dhara, S., & Paul, A.K. (2016). Embankment Breaching and Its Impact on Local Community in Indian Sundarban: A Case Study of Some Blocks of South West Sundarban. IJISET, 3(2), 23-32.
District Human Development Report of South 24 Parganas (2009). Development & Planning Department, Government of West Bengal. 1-20. Retrieved on 12 January 2019 from,
Dutta, S. (2014). Sir Daniel Hamilton and the History of Gosaba. Mitra and Ghosh Publishers, 23-35. ISBN: 978-81-7293-996-0
Ghosh, A., & Mukhopadhyay, S. (2016). Bank Erosion and Its Management: Case Study in Muriganga-Saptamukhi Interfluves Sundarban, India. Geographical Review of India, 78(2), 146-161. DOI 10.1007/s40808-016-0130-x
Ghosh, A., Schmidt, S., Eickert, T. & Niisser, M. (2015). The Indian Sundarban Mangrove Forests: History, Utilization, Conservation Strategies and Local Perception. Diversity, 7, 149-169. doi:10.3390/d7020149
Gopinath, G., & Seralathan, P. (2005). Rapid Erosion of the Coast of Sagar Island, West Bengal, India. Environmental Geology, 48, 1058–1067. DOI: 10.1007/s00254-005-0044-9
Gour, J. (2012). Changing Fluvio-Gomorphological Environment in the Matla-Bidyadhari Interfluves- A Model Unit of Active and Mature Indian Sundarban. Geo-Analyst, 2(1), 1-7.
Kundu, A.K. (2014). Embankment in Sundarban and Reconstruction of Damaged Embankment in Aila. Sechpatra, Waterways and Irrigation Department, Government of West Bengal, pp. 19-25.
Lakshmi, S.A., & Edward, J.K.P. (2010). Coastal Issues and Management Strategy for Sagar Island in Bay of Bengal. Recent Research in Science and Technology, 2(5), 96-101. ISSN 207776-5061
Maity, R., Das, T.K., & Majee, A. (2012). Managing Embankment Breaching in North-East Sundarban, Community Awareness in Sundarban. S. Chatterjee (Eds). Acb Publication, Kolkata, India, 8-17.
Mistri, B. (2014). Construction of Closure on Tidal Creeks and its Effects: A Case Study of Pathar Pratima CD Block of Sundarban. Nature and Sustainable Development-Impact of Green Accounting, Published by Academic Staff College, the University of Burdwan, 111-124.
O’Mally, L. S.S. (1914). Rivers of Bengal, Bengal District Gazetteers. The Bengal Secretariat Book Depot. pp 1-31.
Sarkar, H., Roy, A., & Siddique, G. (2016). Impact of Embankment Breaching and Rural Livelihood: A Case Study in Ghoramara Island of the Sundarbans Delta in South 24 Parganas. The Journal of Bengal Geographer, 5 (4), 97-117.
Sarkhel, P. (2012). Examining Private Participation in Embankment Maintenance in the Indian Sundarban. Published by the South Asian Network for Development and Environmental Economics (SANDEE), SANDEE Working Paper No. 75–12, 1-24.
Sarkhel, P. (2013). Policy Brief Based on SANDEE Working Paper No. 75-12,’Examining Private Participation in Embankment Maintenance in the Indian Sundarban by Prasenjit Sarkhel. Department of Economics, University of Kalyani, West Bengal. India, 1-4. Retrieved on 17 March 2019from, https://ideas.repec.org/p/ess/wpaper/id5353.html
Srivastava, A., Niu, X., Di, K., & Li, R. (2005). Shoreline Modeling and Erosion Prediction, ASPRS 2005 Annual Conference ‘Geospatial Goes Global: From Your Neighborhood to the Whole Planet’ March 7–11, 2005, Baltimore, Maryland
The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) Report. (2010). Sundarban: Future Imperfect Climate Adaptation Report Edited By Anurag Danda, pp. 1-2. Retrieved on 14 November 2018 from,