Role of Sensual Image in Scientific Generalisation

Main Article Content

Rafaehl' Rahmatullin
Ehl'vira Semenova
Anatoliy Stoletov
Timur Nazarov
Il'giz Muhamadeev Muhamadeev
Liliya Goremykina
Rafis Ziyazetdinov
Aleksandra Krul'
Lenara Semenova

Abstract

The method of generalisation widely used in scientific research is a variant of the similar logical method. Generalisation in different scientific areas has its own specifics, but in fundamental knowledge, it allows to create general concepts. We explore generalisation in scientific knowledge, focusing on the peculiarities of the formation of general concepts and the role of sensory image in their functioning in scientific theory and the retranslation of scientific knowledge. Scientific, philosophical, religious, literary texts were studied and compared to determine the essence and characteristic features of the generalisation method. Subsequently, the information extracted from these texts was systematised using the methods of similarity and difference. The resulting material based on analogy served as the basis for the conclusion.  The method of concomitant variations turned out to be necessary for establishing the dependence of scientific results on changes in research conditions, which was done on the example of the evolution of generalising images in the field of atomic physics. During generalisation, it is necessary to search for a successful image of a general concept, which is important for understanding its meaning. The image obtained as a result of generalisation of scientific knowledge is an essential semantic unit of a scientific retranslation. General concepts contain generalised images of classes of objects and thus configure the scientific picture of the world. They perform not only a representative but a communicative function in the process of reproducing of scientific knowledge both within science and in society. While scientific knowledge becomes more and more abstract, a sensual image makes it possible to detect relationships that are not accessible to a rational level of knowledge. It also facilitates the transferring of knowledge in learning.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Rahmatullin, R., Semenova, E., Stoletov, A., Nazarov, T., Muhamadeev, I. M., Goremykina, L., Ziyazetdinov, R., Krul’, A., & Semenova, L. (2019). Role of Sensual Image in Scientific Generalisation. Space and Culture, India, 7(1), 83-91. https://doi.org/10.20896/saci.v7i1.433
Section
Special Articles
Received 2019-01-25
Accepted 2019-04-26
Published 2019-06-30

References

Belinskij, V. G. (1940). M. YU. Lermontov: Stat'i i recenzii. Leningrad: Hudozhestvennaya literatura (In Russian).
Belyaev, N. I. (2007). Obraz cheloveka v izobrazitel'nom iskusstve: individual'noe itipichnoe. Vestnik Orenburgskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, 7(71), 175-179 (In Russian).
Berkeley, G. (2016). A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge (Classic Reprint) (pp. 438). Fb&c Limited.
Bonzio, S., Loi, A., & Peruzzi, L. (2019). A Duality for Involutive Bisemilattices. Studia Logica, 107(2), 423–444.
Bruner, J.S. (1991). The Narrative Construction of Reality. Critical Inquiry, 18(1), 1-21.
Dictionary of Philosophy. (1942). Ed. by Dagobert D. Runes. Available at: http://www.ditext.com/runes/index.html (Access data: 06.04.2019)
Du Sautoy, M. (2016). The great unknown: seven journeys to the frontiers of science. Penguin.
Einstein, A. (2018). The Collected Papers of Albert Einstein, Volume 15 (Translation Supplement): The Berlin Years: Writings & Correspondence, June 1925–May 1927. Princeton University Press.
Fernández, E. (2019). Habit and Generalization. Chinese Semiotic Studies, 15(1), 153–163.
Feynman, R. (2011). What is science? Resonance, 16(9), 860-873.
Gabdrakhimov, K. M., Khayretdinov, A. F., Sultanova, R. R., Konashova, S. I., Konovalov, V. F., Sabirzyanov, I. G., Gabdelkhakov, A. K., Isyanyulova, R. R., Martynova, M. V., & Blonskaya L. N. (2018). Reproduction of Stable Pine Forests in the Southern Urals. Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 13, 6494-6499.

Gibson, J.J. (1972). A theory of Direct Visual Perception. In J. Royce, W. Rozenboom (Eds.). The psychology of Knowing. New York: Gordon & Breach.

Gor'kij, M. (1953). O literature. Moscow: Sovetskij pisatel' (In Russian).
Holt, R. R. (1964). Imagery: The Return of the Ostracized. American Psychologist, 19, 254-264.

Hume, D. (2007). An enquiry concerning human understanding and other writings. Cambridge University Press.

Ivanov, A. I., Andreeva, A.V., Skovorodin, E. N., Shaimukhametov, M. A., Altynbekov, O. M., Sultangazin, G. M., Galieva, Ch. R., Urmanov, I. M., Khakimova, A. Z., & Nikolaeva, O. N. (2018). Anaerobic Microflora Impacton Pathomorphogenesis of Swine Dysentery. Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 13, 8796-8802.

Lawson, R. S. (2016). Evolution of Nuclear Medicine Physics in the UK. In A History of Radionuclide Studies in the UK (pp. 33-38). Springer, Cham.
Leslie, S.-J., & Lerner, A. "Generic Generalizations". The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2016 Edition). Available at: https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2016/entries/generics/ (Access data: 06.04.2019).

Lukmanov, D. D., Habirov, G. A., Kushubakova, B. K., Akhmadieva, A. F., Ismagilov, K. R., Fanisov, R. F., Iskuzhina, G. R., Valieva, G. R., Atazhanova, A. A., & Yumaguzhina, J. R. (2018).
Private Land Ownership Development and Investments in the Agrarian Sector of Emerging Economies. Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 13, 8760-8767.

Mallon, R. (2018). Constructing race: racialization, causal effects, or both? Philosophical Studies, 175(5), 1039–1056.
Mason, J. (2018). Generalizations, Cultural Essentialism, and Metaphorical Gulfs. Dao, 17(4), 479–497.
Masreliez, C. J. (2015). The Progression of Time New ideas in physics. Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg.
McCabe, D. P., & Castel, A. D. (2008). Seeing is believing: The effect of brain images on judgments of scientific reasoning. Cognition, 107(1), 343-352.
McGlade, A. L., Zbozinek, T. D., Treanor, M., & Craske, M. G. (2019). Pilot for novel context generalization paradigm. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 62, 49-56.

Miyatsu, T., Gouravajhala, R., Nosofsky, R. M., & McDaniel, M. A. (2019). Feature highlighting enhances learning of a complex natural-science category. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning Memory and Cognition, 45(1), 1–16.
Mulder, J. M. (2018). The limits of humeanism. European Journal for Philosophy of Science, 8(3), 671-687.

Murtaeva, D. Z. (2015). Mirovozzrencheskij obraz v nauchnom poznanii. PhD dissertation. Ufa: Bashkir State University. (In Russian)
Norton, D. F., & Norton, M. J. (2000). A Treatise of Human Nature: Being an Attempt to Introduce the Experimental Method of Reasoning Into Moral Subjects. Oxford University Press.
O’Connor, C. (2017). Evolving to Generalize: Trading Precision for Speed. The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 68(2), 389–410.
O'Connor, Z. (2015). Colour, contrast and gestalt theories of perception: The impact in contemporary visual communications design. Color Research & Application, 40(1), 85-92.
Phalke, A. R., & Özdoğan, M. (2018). Large area cropland extent mapping with landsat data and a generalized classifier. Remote Sensing of Environment, 219, 180-195.

Rahmatullin, R. Yu. (2000). Ontologizirovannye obrazy v nauchnom poznanii: genesis I funkcii. Doctoral dissertation. Ufa: Bashkir State University (In Russian).
Rahmatullin, R. Yu. (2012). Germenevticheskaya funkciya obraza v processeobucheniya, Vestnik Karagandinskogo universiteta, 4, 74-79 (In Russian).
Rahmatullin, R. Yu. (2017). Obraz kak component pedagogicheskogo prostranstva, Vestnik VEHGU, 2, 78-88 (In Russian).
Rakhimov, Z., Mudarisov, S., Gabitov, I., Rakhimov, I., Rakhimov, R., Farkhutdinov, I., Tanylbaev, M., Valiullin, I., Yamaletdinov, M., & Aminov R. (2018). Mathematical Description of the Mechanical Erosion Process in Sloping Fields. Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences, 13, 6505-6511.

Ram, H., Struyf, D., Vervliet, B., Menahem, G., & Liberman, N. (2019). The Effect of Outcome Probability on Generalization in Predictive Learning. Experimental Psychology, 66(1), 23–39.
Shoup, K. (2018). Particle Physics. Cavendish Square Publishing, LLC.
Stoletov, A. (2016). Social creativity and phenomenon of success in postindustrial society. Creativity Studies, 9(2), 141-150.

Stoletov, A. I. (2005). Tvorchestvo kak osnovanie lichnosti. Ufa: Bashkirskij gosudarstvennyj agrarnyj universitet (In Russian).
Suzuki, M. S. (2016). Rutherford scattering and hyperbola orbit Masatsugu Sei Suzuki and Itsuko S. Suzuki Department of Physics, SUNY at Binghamton (Date: June 15, 2016).
Thorpe, A., & Figge, F. (2018). Climate change and globalisation as ‘Double Exposure’: Implications for policy development, Environmental Science & Policy, 90, 54-64.

Townsend, C., & Ellis-Young, M. (2018). Urban population density and freeways in North America: A re-assessment. Journal of Transport Geography, 73, 75-83.
Webber, B. R., & Davis, E. A. (2012). Commentary on ‘The scattering of α and β particles by matter and the structure of the atom’ by E. Rutherford (Philosophical Magazine 21 (1911) 669–688). Philosophical Magazine, 92(4), 399–405.
Żenczykowski, P. (2018). Quarks, Hadrons, and Emergent Spacetime. Foundations of Science, 24(2), 287–305.
Zinchenko, V. P. (1990). Nauka – neot"emlemaya chast' kul'tury? Russian Studies in Philosophy,1, 33-50 (In Russian).