Main Article Content
The objective of this paper is to examine the achievements of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and India Vision 2020 in the context of the slums of Varanasi city. India has been facing the problem of growing urban poverty due to rapid urbanisation. According to the Census of India 2011, about 65 million people live in urban slums, which are overcrowded, polluted, unhygienic, and deprived of basic services. This paper compares the goals and targets of UN MDGs and India Vision 2020 with the status of the slum dwellers of Varanasi city. The study is based on primary data, which includes survey of 150 households of five different slums of Varanasi city. The study reveals that more than 70% people are illiterate, less than 35% of population access government health facilities, only 36% household use tap water, etc. This comparison portrays a pathetic picture of slums and the inabilities to achieve both MDGs and national goals.
Key words:MDGs, India Vision 2020, Slums, Poverty, Quality of life, Varanasi City, India
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).
Census of India (2011). Town Village Directory, available at http://www.censusindia.gov.in/2011census/censusdata2k11.aspx.
Cohen, Michael (2013). The City is Missing in the Millennium Development Goals, Working Paper Series on The Power of Numbers: A Critical Review of MDG Targets for Human Development and Human Rights,An independent research project coordinated by Sakiko Fukuda-Parr at The New School and Alicia Ely Yamin at Harvard School of Public Health ,pp.1-25.
Government of India (2002). Report of the Committee on India Vision 2020. Govt. of India, New Delhi.
City Development Plan (2006). Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission, Varanasi.
Ishtiyaq, M. and Kumar, Sunil (2011). Typology of Informal Settlements and Distribution of Slums in the NCT, Delhi, Journal of Contemporary India Studies: Space and Society, vol. 1. pp.37-46.
Kabeer, Naila (2010).Can the MDGs Provide a Pathway to Social Justice?: The Challenge of Intersecting Inequalities, Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, UK.
Nath, Anita (2011). India's Progress Toward Achieving the Millennium Development Goals, Indian Journal of Community Medicine, 36(2), pp. 85â€“92.
Smith, D.M. (1977). Human Geography: A Welfare Approach, London: Edward Arnold Publishers.
Sundari, S. (2003).Quality Of Life Of Migrant Households In Urban Slums, In Martin J. Bunch, V. Madha Suresh and T.
VasanthaKumaran, eds, Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Environment and Health, Chennai, India, 15-17 December, 2003. Organized by Department of Geography, University of Madras, Chennai and Faculty of Environmental Studies, York University, pp. 537-552.
Tripathi, V.K. (2010). Socio-Economic Status of Urban Poor Living in Slums of Varanasi City, Earth Science Review,1(2), pp.47-56
Tripathi, V.K. (2011). Urban Poor Living in Slums of Varanasi city, In Sharma, P. R., Yadava R.S., Sharma,
V.N.(eds),Research methodology: Concepts and Studies, R.K. Books, New Delhi, pp. 493-515.
UNFPA (2007). Linking Population, Poverty and Development, available at http://www.unfpa.org/pds/urbanisation
The Millennium Development Goals Report (2006). United Nations Development Programme, United Nation, available at www.undp.org/publications/MDGReport2006.pdf
World Bank (2006).Thirty Years of World Bank Shelter Lending: What Have We Learned?, World Bank, Washington DC, USA: World Bank.