Issues of Gender Equality in the Workplace: The Case Study of Kazakhstan
Family circumstances and gender equality are the factors which influence the formation of labour legislation and state policy in the sphere of wage labour. That is why this research analyses the issues of gender equality in workplace relations. The study uses unity and a differentiation method of wage labour employment regulation. This method allowed us to determine the specifics of workplace relations, which involve women and people with family responsibilities. It was established that the optimal legal regulation of womenâ€™s labour and labour of people with family responsibilities must be directed at achieving gender equality in the workplace and creating the conditions under which women and other people would be able to combine work and family responsibilities. The creation of a supportive environment for workplace relations of the specified categories of workers must be implemented through both internal and global regulations. The activities on both levels are mutually reinforcing in nature. The article, having analysed the Labour Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan and international labour standards, submits suggestions about improvement of labour laws, draws conclusions about the necessity of legal protection for women and people with family responsibilities as well as the elimination of discriminating factors in relations regulated by labour laws.
Abramova, I. E., Ageeva, N. A., Shapoval, G. N., Lysenko, K. N., Samofalova, M. V. (2018). Russia-India: Indian studentsâ€™ adaptation in Russian universities in the context of the dialogue of civilizations and cultures. Periodico Tche Quimica, 15(30), 87-94.
Akhmetshin, E. M., Vasyaycheva, V. A., Sakhabieva, G. A., Ivanenko, L. V., & Kulmetev, R. I. (2018). Key determinants of labor market development of Samara region. In Proceedings of the 31st International Business Information Management Association Conference â€“ Innovation Management and Education Excellence through Vision 2020, pp. 3914-3923.
Atanelishvili, T., & Silagadze, A. (2018). Formation of economic views in the ancient era. Bulletin of the Georgian National Academy of Sciences, 2(1), 191-196.
Bailey, A. J., & Cooke, T. J. (1998). Family migration and employment: the importance of migration history and gender. International Regional Science Review, 21(2), 99-118.
Bhattacharyya, R. (2018, March). #MeToo Movement: An Awareness Campaign. International Journal of Innovation, Creativity and Change 3(4): 1-12. Retrieved on 24 October 2018 from, http://www.ijicc.net/images/Mrach18_spec_edition/battacharyarra_March18.pdf
Blackburn, R. M., Jarman, J., & Brooks, B. (2000). The puzzle of gender segregation and inequality: A cross-national analysis. European Sociological Review, 16(2), 119-135.
Burbyka, M., Klochko, A., Logvinenko, M., & Gorbachova, K. (2017). Separate aspects of legal regulation of womenâ€™s labour rights". International Journal of Law and Management, 59(2), 271-283, https://doi.org/10.1108/IJLMA-02-2016-0021.
Busetti, S., & Dente, B. (2018). Designing multi-actor implementation: A mechanism-based approach. Public Policy and Administration, 33(1), 46-65.
Collins, H. (2001). Regulating the employment relation for competitiveness. Industrial Law Journal, 30(1), 17-48.
Convention No 156. (1983, 11 August) The Convention on Equal Treatment and Equal Opportunities for Men and Women Workers: Workers with Family Responsibilities. Retrieved on 20 April 2019 from, http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_norm/---normes/documents/normativeinstrument/wcms_c156_ru.htm
Den Dulk, L., van Doorneâ€Huiskes, A., & Schippers, J. (1996). Workâ€family arrangements and gender inequality in Europe. Women in Management Review, 11(5), 25-35. https://doi.org/10.1108/09649429610122627.
Fredriksen, K. I. (1993). The provision of informal adult care: The impact of family and employment role responsibilities. Berkeley: University of California.
Golovina, S. Y. (2014). Enhancing the Diff erentiation of the Russian Labour Legislation. Russian Law: Theory and Practice, 2, 86-94.
Ibraev, Z. G., Yerkebaeva, N. A., Mirzakulova, B. A., Nazarkulova, L. T., Buribayev, Y. A., & Khamzina, Z. A. (2017). Social rights, family and child guarantees in the context of the implementation of a new social course in the Republic of Kazakhstan. Journal of Legal, Ethical and Regulatory Issues, 20(1), 1544-0044-20-1-128.
Jain, P., Sodha, D., & Jain, M.P. (2018). Gender Differences and Political Deliberations on Social Media. Media Watch, 9(3), 465-471
Johnstone, E. (1968). Women in economic life: Rights and opportunities. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 375(1), 102-114.
Kalleberg, A. L. (2009). Precarious work, insecure workers: Employment relations in transition. American Sociological Review, 74(1), 1-22.
Khamzin, A. Sh., Khamzina, Zh. A., & Buribayev, Y. A. (2015). The decent work programme of Kazakhstan: Social and labor rights protection from an institutional aspect of international law. Journal of East Asia and International Law, 8(2), 539-540.
Kirillov, A. V., Ushakov, D. S., Vinichenko, M. V., Makuchkin, S. A., & Melnichuk, A. V. (2017). Career opportunities for the management's personnel reserve. Eurasian Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 12(5b), 723-733.
Landay, K., & Oshkosh, W. (2019). Applicant Gender and Recruiter and Organizational characteristics. Gender in Management, 34(1), 2-18.
Liu, A. H., Shair-Rosenfield, S., & Vance, L. R. (2018). Zsombor Csata. Linguistic Origins of Gender Equality and Womenâ€™s Rights. Gender and Society, 32(1), 82-108.
Maria-Abalos, C. F. L. S. (2016). Social Mobilization in the Net Space: Re-constructed Communication, Identity and Power. Media Watch, 7(1), 5-18
Mukhamadiyeva, G. N., Kussainova, A. K., Baisalova, G. T., Apakhayev, N., Khamzina, Z. A., & Buribayev, Y. A. (2017). Labour law of the modern Kazakhstan. Journal of Legal, Ethical and Regulatory Issues, 20(1), 1544-0044-20-1-129.
Naohisy, M. (2018, 19 May). Modern View of Japan. Retrieved on 15 April 2019 from, https://www.nippon.com/ru/
Official statistical information. (2019, 23 February). Retrieved on 14 April 2019 from, http://stat.gov.kz/faces/
Orloff, A. (1993). Gender and the Social Rights of Citizenship: The Comparative Analysis of Gender Relations and Welfare States. American Sociological Review, 58(3), 303-328.
Parasuraman, S., & Simmers, C. A., (2001). Type of employment, workâ€“family conflict and well being: a comparative study. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 22(5), 551-568.
Peters, M. A. (2017). Gender Equality. Encyclopedia of Educational Philosophy and Theory. Springer: Singapore.
Pierotti, R. S., Lake, M., & Lewis, C., (2018). Equality on His Terms: Doing and Undoing Gender through Menâ€™s Discussion Groups. Gender and Society, 32(4), 540-562.
Quick Take: Women in the Workforce â€“ Global. (2018, 31 October). Retrieved on 20 March 2019 from, https://www.catalyst.org/research/women-in-the-workforce-global/.
Raghuram, P. (2004). The difference that skills make: gender, family migration strategies and regulated labour markets. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 30(2), 303-321.
Rzhanitsyna, L. S., (2015). The conception of women's employment. Moscow: Institute for Economics at the Russian Academy of Science.
Sexual Harassment at Workplace: Legal and Policy Challenges In the Republic of Kazakhstan (2017, July). UN Women. Retrieved 20 March 2019 from, http://www2.unwomen.org/-/media/field%20office%20eca/attachments/publications/country/mco-kazakhstan/2017%20kp%20on%20sexual%20harassment%20final%20eng.pdf?la=en&vs=4532
Silagadze, A. (2018). Some aspects of economic ideas in Shota Rustaveliâ€™s â€œthe knight in the panther skinâ€. Bulletin of the Georgian National Academy of Sciences, 12(1), 161-167.
Singh, S., & Kumar, A. (2019). Sexual Violence in Indian Public Sphere: Counter-public Creation and Deferral. Journal Space and Culture, India, 6(5), 8-28. https://doi.org/10.20896/saci.v6i5.317
TandzegolskienÄ—, I., & JurgilÄ—, V. (2015). Work and family reconciliation: issues and policy. Journal of International Scientific Publications: Educational Alternatives, 13, 240-252.
The Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan. (2012, 16 November). On the ratification of the Convention on Equal Treatment and Equal Opportunities for male and female workers: workers with family responsibilities (Convention No. 156). Retrieved on 21 April 2019, from https://online.zakon.kz/Document/?doc_id=31292466
The new Labor Code of the Republic of Kazakhstan will determine the boundaries of state interference in labor relations. (2015, 03 September). Retrieved on 21 April 2019, from https://www.kt.kz/rus/politics/novij_trudovoj_kodeks_rk_opredelit_granici_gosudarstvennogo_vmeshateljstva_v_trudovie_otnoshenija_1153609701.html
Tripathy, M. (2018). Breaking the Code of Gender Barrier to Leverage the Position of Women in Indian Workplaces. Journal Space and Culture, India, 6(3), 180-193. https://doi.org/10.20896/saci.v6i3.328
UN Women Central Asia. (2018, 24 May). Retrieved on 20 March 2019 from, https://twitter.com/unwomenctrlasia/status/999585161829408769
Ushakov, D., Elokhova, I., & Kozonogova, E. (2017). Post industrialization prospects in the dynamics of socioeconomic transformations: Cluster approach. International Journal of Ecological Economics and Statistics, 38(2), 23-32.
Van, H. T., Huu, A. T., & Ushakov, D. (2017). Liberal reforms and economic growth: Current issues and interrelations. Journal of International Studies, 10(4), 109-118.
Vinichenko, M. V., Makushkin, S. A., Melnichuk, A. V., Frolova, E. V., & Kurbakova, S. N. (2016). Student employment during college studies and after career start. International Review of Management and Marketing, 6(S5), 23-29.
Copyright (c) 2019 Dauletbai Ryskaliyev, Sabyrzhan Zhapakov, Nurlan Apakhayev, Zhanar Moldakhmetova, Yermek Buribayev, Zhanna Khamzina
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (SeeÂ The Effect of Open Access).