Geospatial Analysis of Fluoride Concentration in Groundwater in Puruliya District, West Bengal
Fluoride contamination in groundwater is a major geo-environmental issue. In India, groundwater sources contribute more than 85 per cent of the drinking water requirement in rural areas, 76 per cent of irrigation requirements and more than 50 per cent of the urban and industrial water supplies. Many studies have reported fluoride-related health problems such as dental and skeletal fluorosis in humans due to drinking of fluoride-rich water which has severe socio-economic implications. The permissible limit of fluoride in drinking water is 1.5 mg/l according to the World Health Organisation (WHO, 2004) and the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS, 2012).
Puruliya is the westernmost district of West Bengal and located on the eastern slope of the Chotanagpur plateau. The intensive and prolonged dry spell, semi-arid climate, long-term withdrawal of groundwater for irrigation, alkaline nature of sub-surface circulating water, a long residence time of water in fractured aquifers and low chances of dilution are favourable for fluoride enrichment in the Puruliya District. Eighteen out of 20 blocks of the district have high fluoride level in groundwater. This paper attempts to examine the status of fluoride concentration in groundwater, its distribution including the causative factors for its occurrence. It also tries to draw a comparative view of the change in fluoride pattern for the period 2005-06 and 2015-16 and estimate population under threat. Data collected from Physical Health & Engineering Department (PHED) is superimposed over topographical maps and Google Earth. Mapping of fluoride endemic areas in Puruliya district is attempted to delineate areas and the extent of fluoride contamination in the study area.
Ali, S., Thakur, S. K., Sarkar, A., & Shekhar, S. (2016). Worldwide contamination of water by fluoride. Environmental chemistry letters, 14(3), pp. 291-315.
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). (2001). Draft Toxicological Profile for Fluorine, Hydrogen Fluoride, and Fluorides. Atlanta, Georgia: U.S. Department Of Health And Human Services.
Ayoob, S., & Gupta, A. K. (2006). Fluoride in drinking water: a review on the status and stress effects. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology, 36(6), pp. 433-487. Available online at: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/best20 [Accessed on 12 Sept 2016]
Bhattacharya, H. N., & Chakrabarti, S. (2011). Incidence of fluoride in the groundwater of Purulia District, West Bengal: a geo-environmental appraisal. Current Science, 101(2), pp. 152-155.
Census of India. (2011). District Census Handbook, Puruliya. Village and Town Wise Primary Census Abstract (PCA). Directorate of Census Operations West Bengal. Available at: http://www.census2011.co.in/census/district/13-Puruliya.html [Accessed on 10 April 2016]
Central Ground Water Board (1989). Groundwater resource development plan for the drought-prone Puruliya, Ministry of Water Resources, West Bengal.
Central Ground Water Board (2011). Dynamic Ground Water resources of India. Ministry of water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation. India
Central Ground Water Board Report (2013). Name of the States/Districts from where chemical constituents in ground water beyond BIS Norms. Online available at http://cgwb.gov.in/contaminated-areas.html [Accessed on 15 September 2016]
Central Ground Water Board Report (2017). Ground Water scenario in India, Pre-monsoon. Ministry Of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation, India.
Chuah, C. J., Lye, H. R., Ziegler, A. D., Wood, S. H., Kongpun, C., & Rajchagool, S. (2016). Fluoride: a naturally-occurring health hazard in drinking-water resources of Northern Thailand. Science of the Total Environment, 545, pp. 266-279.
Chakrabarti, S., & Bhattacharya, H. N. (2013). Inferring the hydro-geochemistry of fluoride contamination in Bankura district, West Bengal: a case study. Journal of the Geological Society of India, 82(4), pp. 379-391.
Chakrabarti, S., & Ray, S. (2013). Fluoride contamination in a hard rock terrain: A case study of Purulia district, West Bengal, India. Journal of Chemical, Biological and Physical Sciences (JCBPS), 3(4), pp. 29-31.
Chatterjee, A., Roy, R. K., Ghosh, U. C., Pramanik, T., Kabi, S. P., & Biswas, K. (2008). Fluoride in water in parts of Raniganj Coalfield, West Bengal. Current Science, 94(3), pp. 309-311.
Dregne, H. E. (1967). Water quality problems peculiar to arid regions. Symposium on Water Supplies for Arid Regions, Tucson, Arizona.
Edmunds, W. M., & Smedley, P. L. (1996). Groundwater geochemistry and health: an overview. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 113(1), pp. 91-105.
Frencken, J.E. (1992). Endemic Fluorosis in Developing Countries, Cause, Effects and Possible Solutions, Publication No. 91.082, NIPG-TNO, Leiden, the Netherlands.
Handa, B. K. (1975). Geochemistry and genesis of Fluorideâ€Containing ground waters in India. Groundwater, 13(3), pp. 275-281.
Hussain, J., Husain, I., & Arif, M. (2013) Fluoride contamination in groundwater of central Rajasthan, India and its toxicity in rural habitats, Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry, 95(6) pp. 1048-1055.
Jha, S. K., Singh, R. K., Damodaran, T., Mishra, V. K., Sharma, D. K., & Rai, D. (2013). Fluoride in Groundwater: Toxicological exposure and remedies. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B, 16(1), pp. 52-66. Available online at https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10937404.2013.769420?scroll=top&needAccess=true [Accessed on 16 January, 2017]
Mason, J., & Moore, L. C. (1982). A new way of investigating tubuloglomerular feedback: the closed-loop mode. Kidney international. Supplement, 12, pp. 151.
Mondal, D., Gupta, S., & Mahato, A. (2013). Fluoride dynamics in the weathered mantle and the saprolitic zone of the Purulia district, West Bengal. Advances in Applied Science Research 4(6), pp.187-196.
Mondal, K., & Nath, S. (2015). Fluoride Contamination on Aquatic organisms and human body at Purulia and Bankura District of West Bengal, India. Bulletin of Environment, Pharmacology and Life Sciences, 4, pp. 112-114.
National Programme for Prevention and Control of Fluorosis (NPPCF) Revised Guidelines (2014) online available at https://mohfw.gov.in/major-programmes/other-national-health-programmes/national-programme-prevention-and-control-fluorosis-nppcf. [Accessed on January 2016]
National Rural Drinking Water Programme (NRDWP, 2016). Contamination area wise report, Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation, Government of India. Available online at https://indiawater.gov.in/IMISReports/ [Accessed on 8 August 2017]
Ozsvath, D. L. (2009). Fluoride and environmental health: a review. Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/Technology, 8(1), pp. 59-79.
Pettenati, M., Perrin, J., Pauwels, H., & Ahmed, S. (2013). Simulating fluoride evolution in groundwater using a reactive multicomponent transient transport model: application to a crystalline aquifer of Southern India. Applied geochemistry, 29, pp. 102-116.
PHED (2006). Summary of Water Quality Status of the Spot Sources in the Fluoride Affected Blocks of West Bengal under the Joint Plan of Action with UNICEF as on March 2006. Public Health Engineering Department. Govt. of West Bengal, Kolkata. Available online at http://www.wbphed.gov.in/Static_pages/fluoride.html [accessed on 8 August 2016]
PHED (2009). A note on fluoride contamination of groundwater in West Bengal. Public Health Engineering Department. Govt. of West Bengal, Kolkata. Available at www.wbphed. gov.in/flroride_cont.html. [Accessed on 2 March 2016]
Ramesan, V., and Rajagopalan, K. (1985). Fluoride ingestion into natural water of hard rock areas, Peninsular India. Geol. Oci. India, 126, pp. 125-135.
Rao, S.M., (2012). Influence of anthropogenic contamination on fluoride concentration in Groundwater. International Journal of Economics Environment and Geology. 3(1), pp. 24-33, online available at www.econ-environ-geol.org [Accessed on 15 July 2016]
RGNDWM. (1993). â€œPrevention & Control of fluorosis in India.â€ Water Quality and Defluoridation Techniques, Volume II, Published by Rajiv Gandhi National Drinking Water Mission, Ministry of Rural Development, New Delhi.
Rudra, S. (2012). Fluoride Contamination of Ground Water: A Geographical Analysis of Purulia-I Block of Purulia District, West Bengal, India. 10.13140/Rg.2.2.14537.95840.
Samal, A. C., Bhattacharya, P., Mallick, A., Ali, M., Pyne, J., Santra, S. C. (2015). A study to investigate fluoride contamination and fluoride exposure dose assessment in lateritic zones of West Bengal, India. Environmental Science pollution research, (22) pp.6220â€“6229.
Saxena, V.K. and Ahmed, S. (2001) Dissolution of fluoride in groundwater: A water-rock interaction study. Environmental Geology, 40(9), pp.1084-1087.
Saxena, V.K., and S. Ahmed. (2003) Inferring the Chemical Parameters for the Dissolution of Fluoride in Ground Water. Environmental Geology (43), pp. 731-736.
Standard committee report on Water resources (2016). Ministry Of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation, Secretariat, L. O. K. S. (2016). New Delhi, India.
Standard, D. I. (2012). Bureau of Indian Standards. Drinking water â€“ specification. New Delhi, India. Available at: http://wbpcb.gov.in. [Accessed on 4 March 2016]
Suhag, R. (2016). Overview of Ground water in India. PRS
Susheela, A. K. (1999). Fluorosis management programme in India. Current Science,77, pp.1250â€“1256.
Susheela, A. K. (2002). Fluorosis in Developing Countries: Remedial Measures and approaches. Proceedings of Indian National Science Academy (PINSA).68(5). pp. 389-400.
Teotia, S. P., & Teotia, M. (1984). Endemic fluorosis in India: a challenging national health problem. The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India, 32(4), pp. 347.
Tirumalesh, K., Shivanna, K., & Jalihal, A. A. (2007). Isotope hydrochemical approach to understand fluoride release into groundwaters of Ilkal area, Bagalkot District, Karnataka, India. Hydrogeology Journal, 15(3), pp. 589-598.
Viswanathana, G., Jaswantha, A., Gopalakrishnanb, S., Sivailangoc, S. (2009). Mapping of fluoride endemic areas and assessment of fluoride exposure. Science of The Total Environment (407), pp.1579-1589. Online at http://www.sciencedirect.com [Accessed on 10 July 2016]
World Bank (2010). Deep Wells and Prudence: Towards Pragmatic Action for Addressing Ground water Overexploitation in India. Washington, USA.
Weinstein, L. H., & Davison, A. (2004). Fluorides in the environment: effects on plants and animals. CABI Press. Cambridge, USA. [ISBN 0 85199 683 3]
WHO (2004). Guidelines for drinking water quality (3rded.). Geneva: World Health Organisation.
Copyright (c) 2019 Juthika Mandal, Srabani Sanyal
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (SeeÂ The Effect of Open Access).